Working With Safe Text


Replace the characters &, <, >, ', and " in the string with HTML-safe sequences. Use this if you need to display text that might contain such characters in HTML.

If the object has an __html__ method, it is called and the return value is assumed to already be safe for HTML.


s – An object to be converted to a string and escaped.


A Markup string with the escaped text.

class markupsafe.Markup(base='', encoding=None, errors='strict')

A string that is ready to be safely inserted into an HTML or XML document, either because it was escaped or because it was marked safe.

Passing an object to the constructor converts it to text and wraps it to mark it safe without escaping. To escape the text, use the escape() class method instead.

>>> Markup("Hello, <em>World</em>!")
Markup('Hello, <em>World</em>!')
>>> Markup(42)
>>> Markup.escape("Hello, <em>World</em>!")
Markup('Hello &lt;em&gt;World&lt;/em&gt;!')

This implements the __html__() interface that some frameworks use. Passing an object that implements __html__() will wrap the output of that method, marking it safe.

>>> class Foo:
...     def __html__(self):
...         return '<a href="/foo">foo</a>'
>>> Markup(Foo())
Markup('<a href="/foo">foo</a>')

This is a subclass of str. It has the same methods, but escapes their arguments and returns a Markup instance.

>>> Markup("<em>%s</em>") % ("foo & bar",)
Markup('<em>foo &amp; bar</em>')
>>> Markup("<em>Hello</em> ") + "<foo>"
Markup('<em>Hello</em> &lt;foo&gt;')
  • base (Any) –

  • encoding (Optional[str]) –

  • errors (str) –

Return type


classmethod escape(s)

Escape a string. Calls escape() and ensures that for subclasses the correct type is returned.


s (Any) –

Return type



unescape() the markup, remove tags, and normalize whitespace to single spaces.

>>> Markup("Main &raquo;        <em>About</em>").striptags()
'Main » About'
Return type



Convert escaped markup back into a text string. This replaces HTML entities with the characters they represent.

>>> Markup("Main &raquo; <em>About</em>").unescape()
'Main » <em>About</em>'
Return type


Optional Values


Like escape() but treats None as the empty string. Useful with optional values, as otherwise you get the string 'None' when the value is None.

>>> escape(None)
>>> escape_silent(None)

Convert an Object to a String


Convert an object to a string if it isn’t already. This preserves a Markup string rather than converting it back to a basic string, so it will still be marked as safe and won’t be escaped again.

>>> value = escape("<User 1>")
>>> value
Markup('&lt;User 1&gt;')
>>> escape(str(value))
Markup('&amp;lt;User 1&amp;gt;')
>>> escape(soft_str(value))
Markup('&lt;User 1&gt;')